Thermogenic means “tending to produce heat”. In the context of these capsules the heat production is due to the metabolic stimulation this product causes. It contains a whole host of supplements that work together to help speed up your metabolism aiding weight loss without sacrificing muscle.
The capsule contains Green Tea extract standardized to contain 3% Caffeine and 45% EGCG. EGCG has been shown in laboratory studies to interfere with lipid digestion by inhibiting an enzyme important in the break down of lipids to their component parts for the body to use and store.[i] This ability to stop the absorption of ingested lipids can be extremely relevant to weight loss, however EGCG also enhances lipid metabolism aiding in caloric burn. In addition to effecting lipid metabolism and digestion EGCG also inhibits the digestion of starch by inhibition of α-amylase, the primary enzyme that breaks down starch into its component parts that can be incorporated into the body.[ii] Lipid metabolism is also affected by the Garcinia Cambogia Extract (GCE) standardized to 60% hydroxycitric acid. Laboratory studies have found that GCE promotes fat oxidation and inhibits an enzyme that functions as a building block for fat synthesis.[iii]
Green Coffee Bean extract standardized to 50% Chlorogenic Acid (CGA) is also within the capsule. CGA possesses anti-inflammatory and hypotensive effects, which while not directly related weight loss, can reduce the risk of ischemic stroke, coronary artery disease, and some of the other adverse events that being overweight can lead to.[iv] In a meta-study examining the efficacy of using Green Coffee Bean extract supplementation for weight loss they found there was ample evidence that it could possibly have a positive effect on weight loss, but further study with larger sample sizes was required before concrete conclusions could be drawn.[v]
This capsule also contains Olive Leaf Extract (OLE) standardized to 20% Oleuropein. While human studies on OLE are scarce, there is a wealth of information pertaining to its weight loss properties in mice. When OLE is taken in conjunction with a high-fat diet it reduced the up-regulation of certain signaling molecules that cue the body to start producing fatty adipose tissue. Additionally, OLE seemed to decrease the food intake of the mice, indicating they felt satiated longer after meals.[vi] This effect of OLE is accentuated by the inclusion of Caffeine in the pill, which boosts metabolic rate and increases fat burning. After prolonged use these effects are no longer found due to tolerance. However, in both short and long term caffeine blunts appetite helping you eat less. The effects of the caffeine are modulated by the addition of L-Theanine within the capsule. The two compounds synergize to boost the effectiveness of the caffeine while also reducing stress. The reduction in stress might also play a role in weight loss, since many studies link stress and overeating.
Further adding to the synergy of caffeine and OLE there is Bacopa Monnieri Extract (BME) that is standardized to 20% Bacopasides. In the context of this capsule BME has been shown to increase thyroxine in the thyroid gland by 41% in mice.[vii] This is the primary enzyme released by the thyroid gland that aids in increasing metabolic rate not unlike caffeine and OLE.
The final major ingredient of the capsules is Coleus Forkohili Root Extract of which the primary active ingredient is Forskolin. There have been several small clinical trials looking into the efficacy of Forskolin for treating obesity. In one trials 15 obese men were administered Forskolin daily for 12 weeks, at the end of the study they showed a significant decrease in body fat, together with an increase in lean body mass.[viii] A similar study in females found Forskolin to mitigate gains in body mass.[ix] Due to the small size of these studies no concrete conclusions can be drawn, but they are promising signs for using Forskolin to treat people who are overweight.
To further add to this capsule is BioPerine. It was isolated from black pepper and patented with the purpose of increasing absorption of other chemicals. BioPerine has been licensed from Sabinsa for use in this blend to further enhance its thermogenic qualities. While the exact mechanisms causing it to enhance absorption are still under investigation it is currently thought that by inhibiting glucuronidation enzymes that it is preventing compounds from being metabolized for a longer time, thus allowing them to exert their effects for a longer period of time. You can read more about BioPerine at the manufacturers website http://www.bioperine.com/index.php/mechanismsofactions
[i] Wang S, Noh SK, Koo SI. “Green tea catechins inhibit pancreatic phospholipase A(2) and intestinal absorption of lipids in ovariectomized rats.” J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Jul; 17(7):492-8.
[ii] Forester SC, Gu Y, Lambert JD “Inhibition of starch digestion by the green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate.” Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Nov; 56(11):1647-54.
[iii] Shara M, Ohia SE, Yasmin T, Zardetto-Smith A, Kincaid A, Bagchi M, Chatterjee A, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ. Dose-and time-dependent effects of a novel (−)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days. Mol Cell Biochem
[iv] Onakpoya, I. J.; Spencer, E. A.; Thompson, M. J.; Heneghan, C. J. (19 June 2014). “The effect of chlorogenic acid on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials”. Journal of Human Hypertension. 29 (2): 77–81.
[v] Onakpoya, Igho, Rohini Terry, and Edzard Ernst. “The Use of Green Coffee Extract as a Weight Loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials.” Gastroenterology Research and Practice 2011
[vi] Shen, Ying et al. “Olive Leaf Extract Attenuates Obesity in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice by Modulating the Expression of Molecules Involved in Adipogenesis and Thermogenesis.” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM 2014
[vii] Kar A., Panda S., Bharti S. Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002
[viii] Godard MP, Johnson BA, Richmond SR. Body composition and hormonal adaptations associated with forskolin consumption in overweight and obese men. Obes Res. 2005
[ix] Henderson S, Magu B, Rasmussen C, Lancaster S, Kerksick C, Smith P, et al. Effects of coleus forskohlii supplementation on body composition and hematological profiles in mildly overweight women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2005